Lesson Author: K.J. Wagner
Overview: After students learn about metacognition and the importance of activating prior knowledge, they will learn various strategies which will enable them to activate prior knowledge. Text-to-World is one such strategy. The teacher will model the strategy first then have students practice the strategy. Students will continue to practice the strategy as necessary. (This strategy will be taught after the text-to-self and text-to-text strategies are taught and learned.)
Rationale: Research clearly shows that prior knowledge (including experiences and emotions), or schema, is a major factor in students being able to comprehend what they read. Research also shows that students who are explicitly taught and use strategies that activate prior knowledge comprehend better than students who don’t.
The learner will:
- understand what a text-to-world connection is;
- see the teacher modeling text-to-world connections;
- practice making text-to-world connections.
- _______________ (book/article/poem/tale to be chosen by the teacher. Newspapers usually provide material for making a text-to-world connection);
- a rich assortment of books/articles/poems/tales from which students may choose. (Alternative: A single text that the whole group will read);
- Text-to-World Graphic Organizer handouts;
- optional: Post-It™ notes, chart paper, overhead and transparency, or board.
- Introduce lesson.
- Remember when we talked about activating prior knowledge?
- Ask: Who can tell me why it’s important to activate prior knowledge when reading?
- Acknowledge responses and then review importance of prior knowledge.
- What are some of the strategies that we’ve learned that activate prior knowledge?
- Acknowledge responses and then review text-to-self and text-to-text strategies.
- Today we are going to learn about another strategy to activate prior knowledge. It is called making text-to-world connections. (Write this on the board, or have a pre-made poster up.)
- I am going to read a ____ to you and model for you how I make connections while I read.
- I want you simply to listen and notice the connections I’m making, then, you will have an opportunity to do the same.
- Read ____ while making connections to things/events/people/places in the world. (The teacher may want to use either Post-It™ notes, chart paper, transparency with a copy of the graphic organizer, or the board to model writing down the connections made.)
- Ask: As I was reading did you make any connections? Allow time for discussion.
- Have students choose a text to read. Or, alternatively, hand students a text to read.
- Hand out text-to-world graphic organizers (or Post-It™ notes) and have students fill them out as they read.
- Allow time for sharing.
- Students spend a week making connections daily in the newspaper, keeping “journal entries” of their connections.
- Students are given a homework assignment to read a text of their choosing, making connections, and write them down in a log or on a reading response form.
- Students are given a graphic organizer and assigned the task of making connections while reading text in another subject/class. (Students should be given a few days to complete this. If the teacher is on a team, the teacher will inform his or her colleagues of the assignment.)
- After the student has had sufficient practice making text-to-world connections, the student will write in a learning log about the strategy and why/how it is helpful to him or her.
After students have had sufficient practice making text-to-self, text-to-text, and text-to-world connections, the teacher will assess learning by having students read a short story, poem, or other text and make the three types of connections, writing out the connections on a graphic organizer.
Alternative/Additional Assessment: In a one-on-one conference, the student will read aloud to the teacher, making connections.
Christen, W. L., & Murphy, T. J. (1991). Increasing Comprehension by Activating Prior Knowledge. ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading, English, and Communication Digest #61. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EDO-CS-91-04)
Keene, E. O., & Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of Thought. Heinemann.